wikipedia:Ru〓er Bo〓kovi〓

At the age of 8 or 9, after acquiring the rudiments of reading and writing from the priest Nicola Nicchei of the Church of St. Nicholas, Ru〓er was sent for schooling to the local Jesuit Collegium Regusinum.
On 16 September 1725, Ru〓er Bo〓kovi〓 left Dubrovnik for Rome. He was in the care of two Jesuit priests who took him to the Society of Jesus, famous for its education of youth and at that time having some 800 establishments and 200,000 pupils under its care throughout the world.


wikipedia:Ignatius of Loyola

Returning to Spain, he and his companions were occupied in University of Alcal〓 (the present-day Complutense University of Madrid, not the newer University of Alcal〓 established in 1977) with the task of making disciples of women called as witnesses by the Inquisition under the direction of magistrate Alonso Mejias. Although the alumbrados [Illuminated; Illuminati; Enlightened Ones] of Spain were linked in their zeal and spirituality to the Franciscan reforms of which Cardinal de Cisneros was a promoter," the administrators of the Inquisition had mounting suspicions. These female disciples, Do〓a Leo, Do〓a Maria, and Do〓a Beatriz were so hysterically zealous that "one fell senseless, another sometimes rolled about on the ground, another had been seen in the grip of convulsions or shuddering and sweating in anguish." This suspicious activity had taken place while Ignatius and his companions were regularly preaching in public. Because of his "street-corner perorations" being identified "with the activities of the alumbrados," Ignatius was naturally singled out for inspection as one of these visionaries; however he was later released.


wikipedia:Franz Mesmer

According to d'Eslon, Mesmer understood health as the free flow of the process of life through thousands of channels in our bodies. Illness was caused by obstacles to this flow. Overcoming these obstacles and restoring flow produced crises, which restored health. When Nature failed to do this spontaneously, contact with a conductor of animal magnetism was a necessary and sufficient remedy. Mesmer aimed to aid or provoke the efforts of Nature. To cure an insane person, for example, involved causing a fit of madness. The advantage of magnetism involved accelerating such crises without danger.


レイラインという概念は1921年6月30日、アルフレッド・ワトキンスによって提案された。 ワトキンスはイギリス中部のヘレフォードシャー州にあるブレッドウォーディン(en:Bredwardineを訪れ、近くにある丘陵が連なる地へと車で出かけた。
多くの剣と魔法の世界に於いて 世界はレイラインをわずかな魔力の一分野として扱っている。またレイラインが交差する点においては、魔力は普段より強くなる。この例はカードゲームであるマジック:ザ・ギャザリングシリーズの中においても見ることができる。

凸版印刷|凸版印刷とヴァチカン教皇庁図書館の「キケロ・プロジェクト」 古文書に隠された文字や画像のデジタル解析システムを増強

パリンプセスト(Palimpsest)とは、何度か上書きされた羊皮紙(特殊処理された動物の皮)の写本のことです。紙が普及する以前は、羊皮紙が一般的に使われていましたが、羊皮紙は動物の皮から作るため、非常に貴重で高価なものでした。そのため不要となった書き文字を洗い流したり削ったりして、その上に新たに文字を書き、新しい文書を上書きしていました。 元に書かれた文字は大抵肉眼では解読し難いものですが、そこには何百年あるいは何千年も前に消された重要な古文書がある可能性があります。凸版印刷とヴァチカン教皇庁図書館は、凸版印刷が独自に開発した紫外線を用いたスキャナでパリンプセスト解読を試みています。

Early 1700

What is most important to remember my dear advice-seeking friends is that no matter what time period you are dressing in this extravagant century it is important to express individuality. Formalism and empiricism are the main forces involved in dress becoming a reflection of the economic and social status of England at the time. Remember that your dress is more than simply a way to protect yourself from the elements, but a way to express your social position, attitudes, and class. I am filled with confidence that if you look about you, study the dress of the Kings, and adapt it to your own station, you will be perfectly successful in your quest for the perfect ensemble.

wikipedia:Maria Theresa

Aware of the inadequacy of bureaucracy in Austria and, in order to improve it, Maria Theresa reformed education in 1775. In a new school system based on the Prussian one, all children of both genders from the ages of six to twelve had to attend school. Education reform was met with hostility from many villages; Maria Theresa crushed the dissent by ordering the arrest of all those opposed. Although the idea had merit, the reforms were not as successful as they were expected to be; in some parts of Austria, half of the population was illiterate well into the 19th century.
The empress permitted non-Catholics to attend university and allowed the introduction of secular subjects (such as law), which influenced the decline of theology as the main foundation of university education.




テレジアの旦那さんであるフランツの遺産 2000万グルデン

宮廷のコックさん 年俸 4グルデン
宮廷お抱えの有名な学者 600グルデン
宮廷音楽家 モーツァルト 800グルデン


女帝マリア・テレジア (上) (下) (1984年)

女帝マリア・テレジア (上) (下) (1984年)


wikipedia:Frederick Calvert, 6th Baron Baltimore

Frederick Calvert, 6th Baron Baltimore, 4th Proprietor of Maryland (February 6, 1731 – September 4, 1771) was an English nobleman and last in the line of Barons Baltimore. Although he exercised almost feudal power in the Province of Maryland, he never once set foot in the colony and, unlike his father, he took little interest in politics, treating his estates, including Maryland, largely as sources of revenue to support his extravagant and often scandalous lifestyle. In 1768 he was accused of abduction and rape by Sarah Woodcock, a noted beauty who kept a milliner's shop at Tower Hill. The jury acquitted Calvert but he left England soon afterwards, and never recovered from the public scandal which surrounded the trial. Dogged by criticism and poor health, he contracted a fever and died in Naples at the age of 39.

To Kill a King Trailer - YouTube
wikipedia:Henry Vane the Younger

Despite their political differences, Vane and Winthrop developed an epistolary relationship in the following years.Vane's legacy from his time in the New World includes the colonial legislation appropriating £400 for the establishment of an institute of higher learning now known as Harvard University.

wikipedia:William III of England
上陸して、イギリスの議会と結んで、自分が王位につく。(名誉革命 権利の章典 懐かしい)

As his life drew towards its conclusion, William, like many other European rulers, felt concern over the question of succession to the throne of Spain, which brought with it vast territories in Italy, the Low Countries and the New World. The King of Spain, Charles II, was an invalid with no prospect of having children; amongst his closest relatives were Louis XIV (the King of France) and Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor.